Tuesday, October 26, 2010


– PART 3 (Final)

Edwin’s daughter, Sybil D’Souza, did her basic education in Panchgini. She returned to Goa in 1941 and continued her studies in Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Parra.

She taught at Botelho’s from 1954 to 1960. She fondly recalls the following teachers who taught in the SHJHS, Anjuna during her time: Ms. Ivy Fernandes from Gaumvaddi (late Manuel Xavier’s daughter;) Ms. Zita Dias from Mazalvaddo (late Dr. João Dias’ daughter) - she taught from 1954 to 1975; Ms. Agnes Vales from Vagator; Ms. Angela de Souza from Igreja vaddo (late Aureliano’s daughter;) late Ms. Jessie D’Souza from Voilo Vaddo (late Diogo Antonio’s daughter) – she taught from 1958 to 1994; she started off her teaching career with a monthly salary of Rs.30; Ms. Rose Mendonsa from Mazalvaddo; Ms. Noemia de Souza from Chinvar (Dr. Willie de Souza’s sister – now Sr. Noemia of Nirmala Niketan) and Mr. Saldanha from Assagao.

She left Goa for Bombay in June 1960. She could not attend her father’s funeral in November 1960 because we were still under Portuguese rule; it was not easy those days to travel from Bombay to Goa.

Sybil continues to live in Mumbai. She is 87 years old (Born: May 10, 1923), and is in good health, just like her first cousin, Phyllis, who is 86 years old (Born April 17, 1924).

Edwin’s son, Bernard de Souza, is in Germany. He was born on May 17, 1942. He studied at St. Britto’s, Mapusa. He was tall and thin and always had his hair closely cropped like a crew-cut. He resembled Gandhi, in his appearance and built; he also wore circular-framed spectacles like Gandhi; hence, he was nicknamed ‘Gandhi’ at school and in the village. When the movie ‘Gandhi’ was made, I immediately thought of Bernard; he would have suited Gandhi’s role better than Ben Kingsley!

Edwin’s wife, Lucia or Lucy, was very supportive of her son’s migration to Portugal. Bernard was hesitant to leave because there was nobody to look after his mother, who was quite old and frail.

But his mother was so nice and considerate that she point blank told him not to worry about her at all. She said her days were numbered and she would pass away any time, but if he missed the opportunity to immigrate to Portugal, he could face an uncertain future. He followed his mother’s wishes and left for Portugal in 1966, from where he later migrated to Germany.

Lucy lived in the first bedroom at the front right of the house. She was a pious person. It was obvious from several large statues, over one and a half feet high, which were distinctly arranged in her room, that the whole family was God-fearing. To my knowledge the statues of the following saints were in her room:

St. Rita’s - it was the only statue which was enclosed in a glass dome
St. Philomena’s - she was not de-canonized then
Sacred Heart of Jesus
St. Anthony’s
Plus many small statues

Besides the main oratorio or olotor, the prayer room walls had large pictures mounted on them, about a meter high, of Sacred Heart of Jesus, Sacred Heart of Mary and St. Teresa.

In the Sixties and Seventies, whenever a theft was committed or people lost their valuables, they rushed to Lucy’s room to tie St. Anthony’s statue. They kept him tied until the culprit(s) was/were caught or lost items were found.

Similarly, we also used a ‘manual’ (prayer book) to catch thieves/wrong doers. The process was simple. A key was placed in the middle of the manual and the manual tied with a strong string. Two persons held the ends of the key on their finger tips. A prayer was recited and names were taken. Surprisingly, whenever a culprit’s name was taken, the manual would turn or rotate. The name was repeated at least three times to confirm the fact. Well, those were the days of faith!

After Edwin passed away and Bernard left for abroad, we would visit Lucy sometimes and listen to her sweet talk attentively. She was soft-spoken; she spoke very good English.

She lived on a simple diet: For breakfast she had one raw egg and a cup of tea/coffee. For lunch she had a bowl of soup and a little white rice. For dinner, she ate one “poyi” (local bran bread) with a glass of milk. She was the last member of Jacob’s family to live in the house, which was converted into ‘Bougainvillea Hotel - Grandpa’s Inn’ in 1988. She died in ‘Mother Heaven’ Old Age Home in Calangute.

In 1931, Fr. Felipe Neri Mendonça, an outstanding educationist and a strict disciplinarian, took over as the Principal of St. Joseph’s High School, Arpora. It was the only school which did not come under Diocesan Society of Education at the time but it was subsequently handed over to the Society.

Pre-liberation, Catholic Institutions were universally governed by ‘Concordat’ – An agreement between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state on religious matters.

This often included both recognition and privileges for the Catholic Church in a particular country – in our case it was Goa, India Portuguesa. There were no Societies then but schools were known as ‘Bishop’s Schools’.

Post Liberation, village parochial schools were closed down and each parish was asked to establish a new school in the village.

The Holy See had appointed Dom Francisco da Piedade Rebello as the Apostolic Administrator of Goa.

Since under the Indian Law, societies could be formed, Fr. Mendonça approached Dom Francisco and expressed his desire to form a society to run schools, but his idea was turned down.

The Archdiocese of Goa appointed Fr. Mendonça as the Diocesan Inspector of Schools. With this feather in his cap, he affiliated three more schools to St. Joseph’s High School and formed a cluster of four schools.

Those schools were: Sacred Heart of Jesus High School (SHJHS), Anjuna; St. Francis Xavier’s High School (SFXHS), Siolim, and St. Thomas High School – Boys (STHS – Boys) Aldona.

In 1954, SHJHS, Anjuna, was taken over by Fr. Felipe Neri Mendonça, a powerful personality then.

He assigned Fr. Peter Fernandes from Bhatti, Anjuna, as the first Director of the school. One Robert D’Souza was posted as the Director of SFXHS, Siolim.

Students from SHJHS, Anjuna and SFXHS, Siolim, who wished to continue to study beyond the 4th Std. shifted to St. Joseph’s High School, Arpora, where they completed their Matriculation. The process of changing Primary school to the Secondary in Arpora was known as ‘Feeder Program’.

Of course, students had to stealthily cross Goa’s borders and answer their final exams of S.S.C. Examination Poona or Bombay Board in Maharashtra, as Goa did not have an S.S.C. Examination Board then. Fr. Lyons got St. Joseph’s High School recognized by the University of Bombay in 1897, and the school sent its first batch of students for Matriculation Examination in 1900.

In 1964, the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Anjuna, was registered under St. Joseph’s Educational Society, Arpora, Goa.

Fr. Olgo Rodrigues took over as the Director of the school from Fr. Peter Fernandes in the early Sixties. He passed away in January 1968. He was one of the most appreciated priests in Anjuna. No wonder, people from all walks of life attended his funeral; it was the best attended funeral at that time.

Classes in SHJHS, Anjuna, were gradually increased to the 5th Std. followed by the 6th and the 7th Std.

In June 1968, late Fr. Olgo was succeeded by Fr. Alipio Mascarenhas. He served the school for eleven years and thus became the longest serving Principal of the school.

It was Fr. Alipio’s ambition to take the school forward. Therefore, when he took charge of the school, his first priority was to have a new school building, as the house in which the school was accommodated was in a very bad shape, and to upgrade the classes from Std. VIII to Std XI – the old SSCE.

The 8th Std. was introduced in 1971 followed by the 9th Std. in 1972.

When Fr. Alipio took over as the Principal of the school, they were paying Rs.200 to Mr. Arthur/Ms. Wicky as rent of the premises of Botelho’s House. This was when tourists began to arrive in Anjuna and they paid much more for houses like the school premises.

Obviously, discontent was expressed by the owners of the house but the school management could not pay them more than what they did. Moreover, the premises were not worth a hike in the rent.

The school management wanted to get out of Botelho’s house and move to a new place but they were not in a position to do so.

The Chapel did not have a suitable plot. So, Fr. Alipio began the search for a suitable plot to set up school premises.

Fr. Alipio met with Rui Monteiro, who was quite an influential person then, as he worked as an ‘empregado’ (officer) in the Administração das Comunidades de Bardez, and was a member of the Confraria, and discussed the matter with him. They in turn approached Ms. Zita Dias who was on the staff of the school.

Zita immediately mentioned about the search of a plot to her brother, Benigno A.E. Dias, known to all as ‘Benny’, who generously consented to donate a big plot to the flourishing institution at Tembi for the construction of a new school building. This was sometime in 1974.

It was the far vision of Fr. Alipio Mascarenhas, which set the ball rolling in 1975.

At first, they wanted to build new premises of the school behind Botelho’s house but the place was not sufficient. Moreover, the parties concerned did not agree to the proposal.

The next problem was to raise finances.

Although Fr. Alipio visited every house to collect aid/donation for the new school premises, the response was not very encouraging.

Therefore, Fr. Alipio wrote to the Holy See asking him for help to build the new premises of the school.

God heard our prayers and the Holy See came to our aid by sending Pound Sterling 12,000, which was a big amount in those days. The public also put in their efforts and the villagers and well-wishers whole-heartedly joined and contributed to make the project a success.

The foundation stone was laid. It was blessed by the Patriarch, Raul Gonsalves on November 27, 1976.

The following writing is inscribed on a slab on the front wall of the school:

This plot of land is donated
To the Sacred Heart of Jesus
High School, Anjuna
By Mr. & Mrs. Benigno A.E. Dias
In loving memory of his late father
Dr. João Mariano Prudencio Dias

As a token of appreciation, a yearly mass is offered for the soul of late Dr. João M.P. Dias. Recently, names of Mr. and Mrs. Benigno A.E. Dias have also been added to the standing instructions of yearly mass.

Full foundation of the school was laid but only four classrooms were initially built at the back of the present building. Primary classes were transferred from Botelho’s house to these classrooms in the fol1owing year.

Later, as the construction of the building progressed, students were required to walk the distance between Botelho’s house and new premises at Tembi to attend classes in both premises. The ground floor was completed first and then the top floor.

The school was conducting classes only up to Std. VIII. So, Fr. Alipio’s next priority was to bring it up to the SSCE, which he did. The first batch for the Board Exam was sent up in the academic year 1974-75.

Classes of the 8th, 9th and 10th Standards were held in two rooms, with partitions, in Bruno Lobo’s house, across the street, adjacent to Tukaram’s posro or shop, around 75 meters away from Botelho’s house.

To get the recognition of the SSCE Board, it was necessary to have a laboratory, library and sports equipment, which were introduced in time before the first SSCE batch was dispatched. The laboratory was donated by Kenneth Nunes.

During Fr. Alipio’s tenure, the posts of Headmaster and clerk were created, which was a novelty in those days.

Fr. Alipio was succeeded by Fr. Francis D’Mello followed by Fr. Luciano Fernandes.

It was left to Fr. Diogo Fernandes to give the finishing touches to the building, which has 14 large rooms, a spacious office, a well-equipped laboratory and a big multi-purpose hall to suit all functions for all occasions.

Fr. Diogo has also to his credit the planning and completing of the commercial complex opposite Our Lady of Good Health Chapel, which is now bringing in a regular income for the Confraria.

For the benefit of students, a library with around 4,000 books was introduced to build up their knowledge; a water cooler was added to satiate everyone’s thirst on the premises; new toilets were installed in addition to the old ones, and a compound wall was raised to keep everyone within bounds of the new premises.

Unlike before, the school had the capacity to sustain total attendance in the morning itself. The inconvenience borne by the teachers and students to come in the morning and evenings finally paid off with the above construction work.

In 1983, the management of St. Joseph’s High School, Arpora and of the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Anjuna, was transferred from St. Joseph’s Educational Society, Arpora, Goa, to the Diocesan Society of Education, Panaji, Goa, under Rule 74.7 of G.I.A. Code – Ref. Notice No.SJESGA/82-83/21 dated 21/3/1983.

At the Golden Jubilee of the school in 1985 – actually, it should have been its Diamond Jubilee - as a memento of the golden day, a spacious and well-ventilated office was built for the school. Initially, the office was at the back of the building.

Formal inauguration of the new school premises was not held, as they could not afford to spend money on an inaugural function. However, celebration of 25 years or a Silver Jubilee of Sacred Heart of Jesus High School Building was held in 1999.

Computer classes were introduced in the school in the mid-Nineties.

In thanksgiving to the Almighty, a statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Patron of the school, was erected at the entrance of the school around the same time. This initiative was taken by Fr. Urban Menezes.

The statue was generously sponsored by Franco D’Souza from Voilo Vaddo in memory of his sister, Ms. Jessie D’Souza, who passed away after serving the school for 36 years. She also served as a Headmistress of the school.

Fr. Cyril Mascarenhas (S.F.X.) took charge of the school in 1997. He came with extensive experience in the academic field spanning over a quarter of a century, which enabled him to infuse new life in the school.

Sacred Heart of Jesus High School is a co-educational Institute managed by the Diocesan Society of Education, Panaji. This society is a religion-based minority institution registered under the Societies Registration Order dated August 29, 1962 in the office of Sub-Registrar, Panaji, under Registration No.107 and under the Societies Registration Act, 1960 under No. 466.

The Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Anjuna, is one of the oldest institutions in this region of India, which was founded by late Alphonsus Ligouri D’Souza.

Actually, had proper records been maintained, today it would have been the second oldest English School in Goa – 1910 or earlier-2010, after St. Joseph’s High School, Arpora!

The school has been imparting an all-round training to the students of both genders by developing their moral values and intellectual and physical qualities.

The school has been recognized by the Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) Poona Board from 1973 and subsequently by the Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Porvorim, and the Directorate of Education, Panaji, Goa. It prepares students for the examination of the 10th Std. of the above-mentioned Board.

The following is the list of Principals who served the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School in Mazalvaddo and Tembi, Anjuna, from the Fifties to the present:
Fr. Peter Fernandes (RIP - died in Canada)
Fr. Olgo Rodrigues (RIP)
Fr. Alipio Mascarenhas (RIP)
Fr. Francis D’Mello
Fr. Luciano Fernandes
Fr. Urban Menezes
Fr. Diogo Fernandes
Fr. Cyril Mascarenhas
Fr. Pio Furtado
Fr. Nixon D’Silva
Fr. Pascoal Fernandes

Fr. Thomas Gonsalves is the current principal of the school. He is the only parish priest to take over the post of Principal of the School. All previous priests were assigned as chaplains to Saud Saibinninchem Kopel or Our Lady of Good Health Chapel and given additional responsibility of school principal.

The old education system was very good and effective; it was value-based. Most Goans who migrated to East Africa and worked in the Railways and took up jobs on the cruise lines or merchant ships had only basic education, which then was the 4th Standard; very few did their matriculation or the 7th/8th Std.

Those who belonged to the latter category went on to occupy high positions like Managers, Directors, General Managers, etc. of firms in British colonies; some even became Principals and Headmasters of schools.

When Afrikanders returned to Goa for good, they received handsome pension. Since it was a British pension, a wife continued to receive half of her spouse’s pension after his death. I remember most Afrikanders in the Sixties laughed their way to the bank every time the Pound Sterling exchange rate soared!

Today, the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School with English as its medium of instruction is firmly established in its own fine building and has three hundred and ninety eight (398) students enrolled in the current academic year 2010-2011.


Hats off to the late Jacob C. D’Souza and his sons, late Walter D’Souza and late Alphonsus Ligouri D’Souza, who initiated the idea of educating people in the village and simultaneously carried it to Parra and Mapusa and thus created ‘the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School Triangle!’

All three of them had a dream, a vision to educate the masses for a better future, and educate they did, not only Anjunkars but people from the adjoining villages as well.

This article is a tribute to late Jacob and his family, especially to his sons late Walter and late Ligouri, who created schools, and to late Edwin D’Souza who managed the Anjuna school as a Headmaster from the late Thirties to the Fifties.

I take this opportunity to congratulate the management, staff and past and present students of Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Anjuna on the first Centenary of the School! Cheers!



Domnic Fernandes
Anjuna, Goa
Mob: 9420979201

Saturday, October 16, 2010


- PART 2

- By Domnic Fernandes

Jacob C. de Souza married Albertina Jorgina Bragança, a native of Baroda, India Britanica. She was a bhattkarn or landlady to the word – she spent most of her time relaxed in an armchair. She passed away at the age of 72 (January 15, 1864 - July 3, 1936). One year later, Jacob passed away at the age of 79 (April 24,1858 – August 1, 1937).

Jacob and Albertina had eleven children – nine sons and two daughters as follows:

1) Walter de Souza (RIP: November 14, 1883 – October 18, 1918). He married Martina Pinto. They had two children – Sylvia de Souza (RIP: 1912 - 1984), Archibald de Souza (RIP: March 28, 1914 – January 15, 1969).

2) Albert de Souza. He died at the age of two.

3) Stanislaus Kostka de Souza (RIP: January 27, 1900 – February 24, 1961.) He married Maria Esmeralda de Souza (RIP: November 14, 1909 – September 19, 2002). They had four children - Maria Berylla Teresa de Souza (Born: October 30, 1930), Dr. Alwyn de Souza (RIP: April 26, 1929 – September 29, 2000), Sr. Greta de Souza (RIP: July 3, 1932 – March 7, 2001) and Raynah de Souza (Born: October 13, 1936).

4) Olive de Souza (RIP). She married Charles Parrett. They had four children – Ivy Parrett (RIP:(November 25, 1907 – January 30, 1996)); Myrtle Parrett (Born: August 8, 1912), Hazel Parrett (Born: December 28, 1920), and James Parrett (Born: 1922).

5) Edwin William de Souza (RIP: June 25, 1889 – November 6, 1960). He married Lily Marques - first wife (Died: February 2, 1924). They had one daughter, Sybil de Souza (Born: May 10, 1923). Edwin’s second marriage was to Lily’s sister, Lucia Brigida
Apolonia Marques (RIP: February 9, 1902 – August 10, 1987). They had two sons – John de Souza (RIP: 1938-1938) and Bernard de Souza (Born: May 21, 1942).

6) Alphonsus Ligouri de Souza (RIP: March 5, 1896 – January 18, 1942). He married Elsie Beatrice (RIP: 1894 - 1991). They had four children – Olga de Souza (Born: 1922), Phyllis Virginia de Souza (Born: April 17, 1924), Cynthia de Souza (Born: October 16, 1927), Joseph Walter de Souza (Born: August 8, 1933).

7) Marie de Souza - died in infancy.

8) Joseph de Souza – died in infancy

9) Dr. Joseph Crysanthus de Souza. He worked in Abedan. He married Norah Pereira. They had three children. Heather de Souza (Born: December 26, 1938), Sandra de Souza (Born: 1946); Charmaine de Souza (Born: October 26, 1956).

10) Robert de Souza. He established a Travel Agency in Iran. He married Mirum. They had six children – Ramzee Albertine de Souza, Larinka de Souza, Herman de Souza, Lawrence de Souza, Lourdes de Souza, Pricilla de Souza. Robert never came back to Goa.

11) Bernard de Souza. He died at the age of 18

In this article I shall talk only about three of Jacob’s sons and their families who were instrumental in establishing and running the Sacred Heart of Jesus High Schools.


Walter de Souza did his B.A.B.T. from the Bombay University and became a teacher.


He married Miss Martina Pinto of Pinto Vaddo, Verla, Parra, settled in her house and became a “ghor-zanvuim”.

On January 5, 1912 he set up a school in his wife’s house in Parra and named it ‘Sacred Heart of Jesus High School’ (now Sacred Heart High School – the word ‘Jesus’ was dropped from the title to avoid confusion between the Parra and Anjuna Schools.)

It catered to English education and is the second oldest English medium school in Goa, the first being St. Joseph’s High School, Arpora, which was established by Mr. William Lyons in 1887.

Walter died at the age of 35 (November 14, 1883 – October 18, 1918) of the World War I epidemic known as the ‘Spanish Flu’ or ‘La Grippe’. It was the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. Once a person was infected, death was certain.

In Goa, most alcoholics survived the disease. In fact, Walter’s family doctor advised him to drink alcohol but since he never drank, he rejected his advice and became a victim of the flu.

It was the most fatal infectious disease which is why only close family members attended funerals – the dead body was taken directly to the cemetery. Our boyyas or pede (grave diggers) who buried the dead survived because they were always on drinks!

Jacob’s sixth son, Alphonsus Ligouri de Souza, was the first student to pass his S.S.C.E. through the Sacred Heart High School Parra in 1914.

He took over as the Principal of the Parra School after the untimely death of his eldest brother, Walter, and was the Principal for more than 20 years.

Under his able guidance and leadership the school achieved success in the academic field, sports and co-curricular activities.

When Ligouri ran SHHS, Parra, Walter’s son, Archibald de Souza, who held a B.A.B.T., taught in the school. Archibald or Archie, as he was popularly known, was the only son of the founder. He became the Principal of the school soon after Ligouri’s death.


He left for Kenya in 1949, and was the Headmaster of Dr. Ribeiro Goan High School, Nairobi for several years. He then joined the Kenya Government Service and taught at Kisumu High School, Kisumu.

He returned to Goa in December 1964 and found that the main building of Sacred Heart High School, Parra, had collapsed; the school had been closed for two years, and the school records were destroyed by termites.

After meeting huge expenses to set the school on its feet again, and running from pillar to post, he re-opened his father’s school in June 1965. He died at the age of 55 (March 28, 1914 – January 15, 1969). There are 680 students enrolled in the school in the current academic year 2010-2011.

Archibald’s daughters, Mavis and Martina also taught at SHHS in Parra.

Mavis married Tony de Sá from Moira, who served SHHS in various capacities for thirty seven and a half years. He was the Headmaster of the school from November 6, 1993 to October 1, 2007. He is now retired and lives at his home in Moira.

Archibald’s son, Walter (named after his grandfather) is presently the Manager/Principal of SHHS, Parra. He took over the position on October 24, 2007.


In 1931, Ligouri set up an English School in Duler, Mapusa, and named it ‘Escola do Sagrado Coração de Jesus’ - Sacred Heart of Jesus High School (SHJHS). Valentino Pinto - the famous wine merchant from Mapusa during the Portuguese era, Dom Caetano Menezes, another powerful personality from Mapusa in those days, and others from Mapusa helped him set up the school.

It was the only English educational institution in Mapusa at that time.

The school was first accommodated in Lawrence Braganza’s house and later it was shifted to Dom Caetano Menezes’ house (now Querobino Almeida’s) in Duler.

Ligouri was already busy looking after the School in Gaumvaddi as well as Parra School. As such, he lacked time and found it difficult to run all three schools. To add to his woes, he also faced a shortage of teaching staff.

At this stage, Valentino Pinto and M. Cruz took charge of the school and they subsequently handed it over to the Jesuits. An application was made to Bombay University for its affiliation, which was granted on March 29, 1944.

On July 22, 1946, the management of the Sacred Heart of Jesus High School, Duler, Mapusa, was transferred to the Jesuits.

But the name of the school was creating confusion, as there was another Sacred Heart High School in Parra. The University required a change in the name of the school.

So, on May 18, 1948, the school was christened ‘St. Britto High School’ in honor of the holy Jesuit who lived in Goa for 7 months to complete his theological studies at St. Paul’s College in Goa.

Ligouri’s daughter, Phyllis Virginia de Souza, who passed her S.S.C.E. in 1940 through SHHS in Parra, taught in SHJHS in Duler, Mapusa from 1943 to 1944.


In 1935, Ligouri de Souza shifted Sacred Heart of Jesus High School from his home in Gaumvaddi to Dr. Constancio Rodrigues’ house or “Rogddeager” in Mazalvaddo, adjacent to the present Bank of Baroda.


If the school was shifted, it meant it existed. Therefore, previous 25+ years should have been taken into consideration for its establishment purpose. Unfortunately, 1935 has been considered as the establishment year of the school. Thus, we have lost more than 25 precious years of the existence of the school from its inception year 1910, if not earlier!

The concept of setting up the school originated with a group of persons including Salvador de Souza, L.J. Denis and Peter Vaz who obtained the support of Dr. Olencio da Gama Pinto, a person who promoted most welfare activities in the village.

B.B. Borkar was the Headmaster of Rogddo’s School, and Ligouri de Souza was the Principal.

The school got its colloquial name ‘Rogddo’s School’ because of Dr. Constancio’s brother, Miguel Arcanjo Rodrigues, who talked too much and spoke very fast resulting in too much noise, which sounded like the rumbling of a grinding stone.

Whenever he went around in the village to hire laborers to work at his home, etc., on hearing him, they would quietly comment: “Kitem re, rogddea baxen sogllo vell goddo-goddo; goddo-goddo; goddo-goddo korun gunngunnaita!” (What man, you rumble like a grinding stone!) This is how he was nicknamed as “Rogddo”, and ultimately the house as well as the school came to be known by his nickname.

Rogddo’s house is a palatial one – the total built up area is 680 square meters! In all, it has 20 rooms, including a large hall and a dining room and two large indoor corridors. Its walls are very high and rooms are very spacious. Its large balcony faces the North.

Like most Portuguese houses it has a “roz-angnnem”, which now serves as a mini garden.

They continued to teach at Rogddo’s from the 1st to the 4th Standard. Three classes were accommodated in the vast hall or sitting room and the fourth class was conducted in the adjoining bedroom.

Rogddo’s house was hired on a rental of mere Rs.50 per month and the school had just fifty pupils on its rolls. It is believed within a fortnight, the number on its rolls jumped to over two hundred and fifty.

A. Ligouri de Souza died at the age of 46 (March 5, 1896 – January 18, 1942). It’s a pity he, too, died so young!

Ligouri’s daughter, Phyllis V. de Souza e Faria, also taught at Rogddo’s School from 1944 to 1946.


She has over 25 years of teaching experience. She started her social service intensively when she was appointed as Chairman of the Project Implementing Committee (Bardez) in 1966.

In 1970, she was elected as Councilor of Mapusa Municipal Council, and in 1973, she was elected as the President of the Mapusa Municipality, thus having the distinction and honor of being the first lady in Goa and in India to hold this distinguished post.

In 1985, she was nominated as a member of the Goa Legislative Assembly for the period 1985-1990.

On the occasion of Women’s Day 2002, the government of Goa constituted the ‘Yashadamini Puraskar.’ These are given to eminent Goan women who have assured success in their respective fields and have brought glory and fame to Goa.

On March 10, 2002, Mrs. Faria was presented with the Yashadamini Puraskar. She also served as the Chairman of the Sacred Heart High School Trust, Parra, Goa in the 1990s.

By the beginning of the Fifties, the Portuguese government made it compulsory for village schools to be conducted in premises that had a cemented or tiled floor - most houses, including Rogddo’s had cow-dung-treated-floor.

In view of the above enforcement, the school was shifted from Rogddo’s to Botelho’s house, opposite Saud Saibinnimchem Kopel (Our Lady of Good Health Chapel), in the early Fifties, where they continued to teach up to the 4th Std.

Edwin de Souza, Jacob’s fifth son, served the Navy but he was forced to leave the job, as he suffered from ulcers.

He returned home in the early Thirties and married his late wife’s sister, Lucia. His brother, Dr. Joseph de Souza, treated him for his ulcers.

When at home, he took up teaching and helped Ligouri. When Walter shifted to Parra, Ligouri, Edwin and Lucia continued to teach at their home in Gaumvaddi. As mentioned earlier, there were also other qualified teachers who taught at Jacob’s school.

Edwin was a disciplinarian; everyone liked him. Every day, he walked from his home to Rogddo’s School. Later, he would walk from his home to Botelho’s house.

Edwin was a gentleman. He dressed well. He wore a pair of trousers, shirt, tie, black coat and shoes. He always wore a safari helmet on his head. Similarly, he always carried a thermos flask containing tea or coffee, which he hung across his chest, and, of course, he carried an umbrella in all seasons.

On his way back home from the school, he broke his walk midway in ‘maddanim’ (a line of coconut trees which began at the “sankov” (bridge) and ended at “Pundari Avoichem dukorn” (Pundari mother’s taverna).

Edwin served as the Headmaster of the SHJHS at Rogddo’s as well as at Botelho’s. Although Ligouri was the founder and Principal of the Anjuna SHJHS, he was hardly present in Anjuna because he had to attend to the schools in Parra and Mapusa. In his absence, Edwin looked after the school affairs. Hence, in those days the school was known as ‘Edwin’s school.’

Edwin died of a heart attack at the age of 71 (June 25, 1889 – November 5, 1960).

……………..To be continued


Domnic Fernandes
Anjuna, Goa
Mob: 9420979201

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गसपर http://www.live365.com/stations/61664

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

The Sacred Heart of Jesus High Schools and their Founders

The Sacred Heart of Jesus High Schools and their Founders - PART 1

Anjuna is laced with 26 wards – one of them is GAUMVADDI. It’s a unique ward because it is also known by nine other ward names as follows:

1) BAIRO SAM JÕAO or St. John’s ward named after the patron of the ward, Sam João Batista or St. John the Baptist. Some old-timers still address their letters to their loved ones at Rua de Sam João or St. John Street/Road, and the postman has no problem in delivering them to the individuals in Gaumvaddi.


All the houses located by the foot of the Gaumvaddi hill on the east side come under ‘Gaumchi-Araddi’ - my house is one of them.


The Prabhus or Porobos, who were the original moradores (residents) or ganvkars, selected the prime elevated sites for residential purposes and they called this belt of dry uplands ‘Voilo Vaddo.’

They then assigned various sectors in the Gaumvaddi to hereditary occupational groups and thus created a small scale industry within Gaumvaddi.

The Anjunkars were an agricultural community. They were and are still a hard-working people. We cultivated paddy fields, nachnno or millet and grew home produce like onions, chilies, vegetables, etc. and supported our families. For centuries, Anjuna met all her requirements locally - it was an independent and self-sufficient village.


The belt of dry uplands is also known as ‘Porobo vaddo’ because most Prabhus or Porobos lived and still live there.


The main profession of Porobos in Voilo Vaddo was to make explosives and fireworks; hence, it came to be known as ‘Fogêr Vaddo.’

Birth marks the beginning of the reign of the god of fireworks. Thereafter, every event in the life of the people, public and private, sacred and profane, Hindu and Christian is loudly proclaimed and celebrated through the voice of gunpowder.

Until the late Eighties, two of the descendants of the ‘Fogêr’ community, popularly known as “Thontto Purso, Fogêr” (lame Purshotam, the manufacturer of artificial fireworks) – his full name was Purshotam Sadashiv Porob - he was called thontto or lame because one of his legs was deformed - he was a polio victim, and his younger brother, Mungês or Mangesh – his full name was Mangesh Sadashiv Porobo, known to all as “bhero Munges” (deaf Mangesh) because he was hard of hearing, were in great demand to make fireworks for the feasts and other occasions in Anjuna, Parra, Arpora, Nagoa, Calangute, Candolim, Assagao, Siolim, Pernem, Mapusa, etc.

Whether they are kids, youngsters, or older people, everybody enjoys the fireworks like crackers, skyrockets, petards, small and big gornal (hand made grenades,) twinkling anars, furious rockets, vibrant sparklers, cyclonic ground discs (phirki), etc.

Fireworks, including "kombo ani kombi" (hen and rooster) at the Vespers, was an added attraction because of which people made it a point to attend the Vespers however busy they might have been. It was so famous and in demand in the days gone by that it was always kept as the last item of the evening.

With the brass band in the background, Mungês would start firing petards, gornal, etc. and treat our eyes to the jet power of rockets, which kept on ascending into the sky before bursting into thousands of colored sparks, which ultimately landed in adjoining fields.

Our joy knew no bounds when Mungês introduced the exhibition of the Catherine Wheel, to culminate finally in the incandescence of the ‘Gate’. People would not move from the site until they witnessed the kombo-kombi fireworks display.

When the kombo-kombi was lit, those present said in utter astonishment: “Polloiat, kombo-kombi kaiborim distat!” (Look at the beautiful rooster-hen!) The hen lastly laid luminous eggs at which people remarked: “Polloiat, kombi kaiborim bhangarachim tantieam ghalta!” (Look, the hen is laying beautiful golden eggs!) And that would mark the end of the fireworks display. It was a bonanza for our eyes and ears.

On the feast day, too, fireworks added worldly (not spiritual) colors to the celebrations.

Thontto Purso and Mungês were so safety conscious that they built four small rooms at Toleacho Bandh (strip of land beside the pond) and stored their gunpowder there, away from residential area.

Just as rice, wheat, millet, lentils, etc. were ground at home on a “dantem” (millstone,) they hired a couple of women to grind gunpowder for them on two “dantim.”

One of the rooms at Toleacho Bandh was solely used to prepare fireworks. Finished fireworks were dried and stored in a separate room.

Bhero Mungês passed away on August 15, 1988. He was 88 years old. Exactly a year later, Thontto Purso passed away on August 15, 1989. He was 98 years old.

Today you get a variety of fireworks but they are not manufactured manually – they are factory-manufactured.

Did you know that the fogêr or manufacturers of artificial fireworks in Voilo Vaddo treated people for burns? Yes, they treated all degrees of burns at home. They mixed gunpowder with coconut oil and prepared some kind of ‘pomada’ (ointment), which was applied liberally over the burns and, voilá, burns were cured within a week or more depending on the gravity of burns – without getting admitted in a hospital!


A slice of Voilo Vaddo is also known as Sonar Vaddo and that’s because the sonar or goldsmith came from this part of Anjuna. It is believed that their workmanship was of a very high quality - some of the best goldsmiths came from Gaumvaddi. The Chodankar family still reside here as descendants of the original race.


Recently, the Sonar vaddo is also known as Padr Agnel vaddo because, as we all know, Ven. Fr. Agnelo was born in Sonar Vaddo/Voilo Vaddo.


All houses in the low lying belt come under Sokoilo vaddo.


In Sokoilo Vaddo, we have ‘Pedro Bhatt’ and this is where, in the 19th century, a great person, Jacob Conceição de Souza, was born to Caetano Bernardo de Souza and Dulcina de Souza, who produced sons like Walter and Ligouri, who were far-sighted visionaries and pioneers of education.

The 19th century produced noteworthy sons in Gaumvaddi, but God’s greatest gift to us was Ven. Fr. Agnelo (January 21, 1869 - November 20, 1927).

For centuries, Anjuna was true to its old adage: “Anjuna fuddem ganv nam ani Anjunkarank nanv nam” (Anjuna lacks a village beyond it; and its people lack any fame for themselves). It was dormant till the middle of the last century, when it suddenly shot to world fame from the late Sixties because of the hippies who made it their paradise.

The 19th century was the era when transportation hardly existed and bullock carts creaked and rumbled over Anjuna’s pot-holed roads.

Primary institutions set up by the Portuguese to formally educate people were not sufficient to cater to their needs neither were they accessible to all.

This gave rise to private institutions and individuals shouldering the burden of teaching and educating the Goans.

These institutions prepared and trained students for the primary and secondary exams besides training people in different professions.

Primary education was made compulsory by a decree of the Government and the teaching had to be exclusively administered in Portuguese or Portuguese-Marathi, Portuguese-Gujrati and Portuguese-Urdu combinations – the English language was nowhere on the scene!

English education in Goa was started by Mr. William Robert Lyons, a Jesuit Scholar, popularly known as Fr. Lyons, when he founded a school in Arpora in 1887 and named it ‘St. Joseph’s High School’. During colonial times it was known as ‘Collégio de Arpora S. José.’

The establishment of an English school was a turning point in the economic and social set up of Goa.

The prevailing conditions at that time had forced many a Goan to leave their birth place in search of greener pastures elsewhere. The youth were anxious to learn English in order to make a living in the then British India and British East Africa.

On the other hand, education beyond the primary level had become the sole privilege of the affluent Goans who could afford to send their sons to Panjim or outside Goa. A few of the middle class and hardly any of the poor class could afford to do the same to improve their state in life.

Employment opportunities during the Portuguese regime, especially to those who learned English, were next to none. This is why Goans who had studied English had to migrate and take up jobs in the neighboring cities like Bombay, Poona, Belgaum, Baroda, Ahmedabad, etc.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the exodus to British overseas territories was in full swing. So, the desire to learn English increased. Consequently, small English teaching schools mushroomed all over Anjuna village but all of them vanished except one in Gaumvaddi.

Jacob Conceição de Souza from Gaumvaddi was one of those Goans who had to leave Goa and take up employment in Belgaum. He was employed in a post office where he worked his way up and became a Postmaster.

We do not know how much Jacob studied but the very fact that he returned home from Belgaum as a retired Postmaster, proves that he was an educated person.

He received a monthly pension of Rs.75, which his grandson, Archibald, collected for him from the Mapusa Post Office.

Upon his return home, Jacob set up an English teaching school in his house in Gaumvaddi (presently ‘Bougainvillea Hotel - Grandpa’s Inn’, owned by Lucindo Faria, son of Phyllis Virginia Faria from Morodd, Mapusa - grandson of Alphonsus Ligouri D’Souza,) around the first decade of the 20th century, but there are no records to support this fact.

However, Dr. Teresa Albuquerque, a highly reputed historian, writes the following in her book: ‘ANJUNA: Profile of a village in Goa’:

“In 1891, we know from an article written by Ambrosio D’Sa in ‘Anglo Lusitano’ that an institution called St. Michael’s School was being directed by Cosmos Damiao da Cruz at Anjuna. The latter resided at Kumbhar Vaddo and had started as a teacher in St. Xavier’s High School, Bombay; and had also been headmaster of a school in Igatpuri. St. Michael’s School comprised of six classes manned by experienced teachers and it continued till 1900, if not later. Both da Cruz and D’Sa taught in the school and very probably ‘Ghirzoo’ assisted them.

From 1910 to 1914 da Cruz taught in an English-teaching school set up by Jacob D’Souza, a retired Postmaster of Belgaum. The classes were conducted in his house at Ganv vaddi.”

Although the school existed in Jacob’s house for over 25 years, sadly this fact is not recorded anywhere except in Dr. Teresa Albuquerque’s book.

But if we go by the year 1910 as the inception year of the school, it completes one hundred years this year, which is good enough cause to celebrate the first centenary of the school.

The school taught only four classes, from the 1st to the 4th Standard. No wonder in those days, whenever one talked about educational qualifications, they would say: “Chear classi xikop aslear puro!” (Should have studied at least four classes!)

The concept of Sacred Heart of Jesus High School was conceived at Jacob’s house at Pedro Bhatt in Gaumvaddi.

“JACOB-HANGÊR” (At Jacob’s)

In the past as well as during our childhood, Jacob’s house was known as ‘Jacob-hangêr’ (at Jacob’s). Later, it came to be known as ‘Edwin-hangêr’ (at Edwin’s) because he and his family were the last members to live in that house before it was converted into a hotel.

Jacob’s house was one of the larger houses in Gaumvaddi. It comprised of the following:

Spacious verandah in front and on its left side
One large entrada or entrance hall
One large sal or sitting room hall (now used as a snooker room)
Four (4) bedrooms, all in a row
One prayer room
One dining room
One kitchen
One storeroom
One passage from the sitting room to the kitchen (now converted into an office)

One staircase from the sitting room corner leads to a loft upstairs. It was used as a study place by Edwin’s son, Bernard, during examination days; it has a wooden floor.

The malli or storey had a window by the roadside, which Lucindo closed because of the age-old belief e.g., ‘Anjunant malliechem ghor togonam’ (a storied house does not last in Anjuna.) It’s alright though to have a door or window on the side; hence, the right side window of the malli has been retained.

As in many old Portuguese houses in Goa, the house has a roz-angnnem (open space in the middle of the house), which exists till today but it is now turned into a mini garden with flower pots.

There are two L-shaped spacious corridors on the outside of four bedrooms, adjoining the roz-angnnem.

There was a servants’ quarter behind the house, a firewood store and a chicken coop, which were demolished and five new rooms or studio apartments, matching the old house, have been built in their place.

On the north side, in line with the compound wall, there were two old-style toilets – one for gents and the other for ladies; these were demolished.

There were three iron gates to the compound wall – one front main gate and one each on the left and right compound walls. The left compound wall was demolished to expand the hotel area.

Now there are only two gates left – the main front gate and the one on the right side. These are original gates and they are still in good condition. Their existence enhances the beauty of the house/hotel and gives antique authenticity to the environment.

The hotel is named ‘Bougainvillea Hotel’ because the compound wall was fully covered with bougainvillea.

The logo of the hotel is a ‘volter’ (armchair), which belongs to late Jacob de Souza; it’s still there in its original condition.


The hotel now has a swimming pool and a Yoga Center in one corner of the plot close to the main road. Three new rooms or studio apartments have recently been built close to the swimming pool, thus bringing the total number of rooms available with the hotel to 12.

If anyone is looking for a comfortable Portuguese-type house to live in while in Anjuna/North Goa, ‘Bougainvillea Hotel - Grandpa’s Inn’ is an ideal place!

Classes were taught in the four bedrooms – now they are hotel room No. 1, 2, 3 and 4. During the summer, classes were sometimes shifted in the verandah so they could enjoy the freshening breeze, as there were no fans in those days.

I did not see Jacob personally but I have seen his photographs at his home (now Grandpa’s Inn) and at his granddaughter’s, Phyllis’ residence in Mapusa. Here is one of them:



From left to right (Front row): Sylvia (Walter’s daughter,) Cynthia (Ligouri’s daughter,) Elsie (Ligouri’s wife,) Albertina (Jacob’s wife,) Jacob, Olive (Jacob’s daughter,) Sybil (Edwin’s daughter,) Ivy (Olive’s daughter)
Children sitting on the ground from left to right: Olga (Ligouri’s daughter,) Phyllis (Ligouri’s daughter,) Hazel (Olive’s daughter)
From left to right (Back row): Archibald (Walter’s son,) Ligouri, Myrtle (Olive’s daughter,) Edwin, Dr Joseph

The elderly from Gaumvaddi and my paternal grandmother, Isabela Fernandes, who worked at Jacob’s from the Thirties until she passed away on July 16, 1957, told us that Jacob was a gentleman and had a great personality.

Just like my grandfather (died July 23, 1943), who sported white beard and was nicknamed “Khaddieo Abreu’ (Bearded Abreu,) by the Abreu family at Sorantto, Jacob, too, sported a fully white, flowing beard. They said it was so shaggy that one of the little girls from his family sometimes sat in his lap and tied it up into bows and plaits!

It has also been related that on one solemn occasion when the Patriarch visited the parish, he stopped to marvel at the fine, shining beard that Jacob sported.

Jacob belonged to a bhattkar or landlord family. Bhattkars did not mix up with common people. They spent their free time with close relatives and friends who were not always there. So, sometimes they felt lonely, and we know loneliness is boring.

Whenever Jacob felt bored, he hired one of the persons from the ward to talk to him and pass his time. Jacob relaxed in an armchair and made the person sit on a stool in the verandah. The person then talked to him and gave him all the news from the village and beyond!

On Sundays, Jacob went to Church in a “boilanchi gaddi” (oxen-ridden carriage). The priest would start Sunday mass service only after Jacob’s carriage arrived in the Church compound. He knew Jacob was on his way to Church or nearing it from the jingling sound created by jingles in the neck of oxen. In the absence of clocks/watches, some Gaumvaddi people depended on the jingling sound of Jacob’s carriage to help them get to Church in time.

……………..To be continued


Domnic Fernandes
Anjuna, Goa
Mob: 9420979201

गसपर http://www.live365.com/stations/61664